Kadın Cinselliği Hakkındaki Gerçekler





Age at First Intercourse

  • By their late teenage years, at least 3/4 of all men and women have had intercourse, and more than 2/3 of all sexually experienced teens have had 2 or more partners (AGI, 2002).

  • A 2007 evaluation of Abstinence (only) Sex Education programs by Mathmatica Policy Research did not find that they had any effects on rates of abstinence among youth, nor on the average age of first intecourse. Government funded abstinence based programs, compared to previous sex education programs, show little significant difference in rates of teen sex. http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/publications/PDFs/impactabstinence.pdf
    Percent of population having had first intercourse, by age
    Males Females
    25% by age 15 26% by age 15
    37% by age 16 40% by age 16
    46% by age 17 49% by age 17
    62% by age 18 70% by age 18
    69% by age 19
    77% by age 19
    85% by age 20-21 81% by age 20-21
    89% by age 22-24 92% by age 22-24

    (Mosher, Chandra, & Jones, 2005)

    Average age of first intercourse, by gender

    (AGI, 2002).

    Average age of first intercourse, by ethnicity
    White Black Hispanic Asian American Other
    16.6 15.8 17.0 18.1 17.4

    (Upchurch et al, 1998)



    • BDSM stands for Bondage, Discipline, Domination/Submission, Sadism/Masochism.
    • In a small sample there were no significant differences between BDSM practitioners and the general population on measures of psychopathology, depression, anxiety, OCD, and psychological sadism and masochism. (Connoly 2006)
    • A study looking at message board posts found 71% of heterosexual males but only 11% of heterosexual females and 12% of homosexual males prefer a dominant role when engaging in sexual bondage. (Ernulf, 1995.)
    • The National Coalition for Sexual Freedom, a national organization committed to supporting the equal rights of consenting adults who practice forms of alternative sexual expression, conducted an informal survey of SM practitioners in 1998-1999. The demographics below are from this survey.

















      No Response 









      Under $ 10K


      Part time






      Full time






      Self employed




      Over $50K




      Over 65




    • 5-10% of the U.S. engages in SM for sexual pleasure on at least an occasional basis (Lowe, 1983).
    • 12% of females and 22% of males reported erotic response to a SM story (Kinsey, Martin, Gebhard, 1953).
    • 55% of females and 50% of males reported having responded erotically to being bitten (Kinsey, Martin, Gebhard, 1953).
    • 14% of men and 11% of women have had some sexual experience with sadomasochism (Janus & Janus, 1993).
    • 11% of men and 17% of women reported trying bondage (Lowe, 1983).


    • 62% of the 62 million women aged 15-44 are currently using a contraceptive method (AGI, 2002).
    • Among U.S. women who practice contraception, the Pill is the most popular choice (30.6%), followed by tubal sterilization (27.0%), and the male condom (18.0%).(AGI, 2002).
    • 27% of teenage women using contraceptives choose condoms as their primary method. (AGI, 2002).

    Information on condom use and errors, from ongoing research at The Kinsey Institute:

    • 28.1% of men reported that they had lost their erection while putting on a condom at least once during the last three times they used a condoms.
    • Men who reported erection loss with condoms were almost twice as likely to report having removed a condom prematurely during the last three condom uses. (40.8% of men reporting erection loss prematurely removed condoms, compared with 21.3% of men not reporting problems)
    • Erection loss was more likely among men who reported at least one condom breakage (47.1 percent) compared with men not reporting breakage (32.5 percent).
    • A study at The Kinsey Institute found some of the most common problems with condom use to be damage (74%), not checking the expiration date (61%), and not discussing condom use with a partner before sex (60%). In addition, various technical errors were found, including putting on the condom after starting sex (43%), taking off the condom before sex was over (15%), not leaving a space at the tip of the condom (40%), and placing the condom upside down on the penis and then having to flip it over (30%). 29% of study participants reported condom breakage and 13% reported that the condom slipped off during sex. Individuals who reported slippage or breakage also had significantly higher scores for condom use errors. http://newsinfo.iu.edu/news/page/normal/4334.html, "Condom, erection-loss study identifies possible path to risky behavior," Indiana University Press Release (2006)
    • More information and study results at http://www.kinseyinstitute.org/research/condomerror.html

    See Kinsey Confidential for more information on contraceptive methods and effectiveness.



    • Men's sexual fantasies tend to be more sexually explicit than women's; women's fantasies tend to be more emotional and romantic (Zurbriggen & Yost, 2004).
    • In one study, men's fantasies mentioned a partner's sexual desire and pleasure more frequently than did women's fantasies (Zurbriggen & Yost, 2004).
    • 54% of men think about sex everyday or several times a day, 43% a few times per month or a few times per week, and 4% less than once a month (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
    • 19% of women think about sex everyday or several times a day, 67% a few times per month or a few times per week, and 14% less than once a month (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
    • Recalled onset of first sexual fantasy is generally between 11-13yrs with men recalling earlier onset of fantasy than women. (Leitenberg, 1995)
    • Sexual fantasies are healthy, occurring most often in people showing the fewest sexual problems and least sexual dissatisfaction. (Leitenberg, 1995).
    • While both men and women can experience similar fantasies, women more often fantasize about taking a passive role or being dominated while men more often fantasize about taking a dominant role, doing something sexual to their partner, or having multiple partners. (Leitenberg, 1995).

    Frequency of sex

    • 90% of men and 86% of women have had sex in the past year
    • 27% of men and 19% of women have had oral sex in the past year
    • 23% of men and 11% of women have bought X-rated movies or videos
    • 10% of men and 9% of women have had anal sex in the past year.
    • 18-29 year olds have sex an average of 112 times per year, 30-39 year olds an average of 86 times per year, and 40-49 year olds an average of 69 times per year (Piccinino, Mosher, 1998).
    • 23% of non-married men reported they have never had sex in the past year, 25% reported only a few times in the past year, 26% reported a few times in the past month, 19% reported 2-3 times a week, and 7% reported 4 or more times a week (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
    • 32% of non-married women reported they have never had sex in the past year, 23% reported only a few times in the past year, 24% reported a few times in the past month, 15% reported 2-3 times a week, and 5% reported 4 or more times a week (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
    • 1% of married men reported they have never had sex in the past year, 13% reported only a few times in the past year, 43% reported a few times in the past month, 36% reported 2-3 times a week, and 7% reported 4 or more times a week (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
    • 3% of married women reported they have never had sex in the past year,
    • 12% reported only a few time in the past year, 47% reported a few times in the past month, 32% reported 2-3 times a week, and 7% reported 4 or more times a week (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
    • 13% of married couples reported having sex a few times per year, 45% reported a few times per month, 34% reported 2-3 times per week, and 7% reported 4 or more times per week (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).


    • As of 2010, the CDC estimates that over one million people are living with HIV in the U.S., with 1 in five of those people unaware of their infection.
    • Estimated number of diagnoses of HIV among adults by demographic category (2010).

       % of New Infections Each Year% of People Living with HIV
      Infected Individuals in the U.S. by Exposure Category
      Men who have sex with men
      Infected through heterosexual contact
      - Women only
      Injection drug use
      Infected Individuals in the U.S. by Race or Ethnicity
      African American (men and women)
      Hispanic / Latino (men and women)

      (CDC 2010)

      Estimated number of diagnoses of AIDS among adults by exposure category (2003).

      Exposure CategoryEstimated # of AIDS Cases, in 2003
      Male-to-male sexual contact
      Injection Drug Use
      Male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use
      Heterosexual contact

      (CDC, 2003)

      Estimated numbers of diagnoses of AIDS, by race or ethnicity (2003):

      Race or Ethnicity Estimated # of AIDS Cases in 2003Cumulative Estimated # of AIDS Cases, Through 2003
      White, not Hispanic 12,222 376,834
      Black, not Hispanic 21,304 368,169
      Hispanic 8,757 172,993
      Asian/Pacific Islander 497 7,166
      American Indian/Alaska Native 196 3,026

      (CDC, 2003)


    • The Kinsey Institute: Prevalence of Homosexuality
    • In a national survey, 90% of men aged 18-44 considered themselves to be heterosexual, 2.3% as homosexual, 1.8% as bisexual, and 3.9% as 'something else' (Mosher, Chandra, & Jones, 2005).
    • Among women aged 18-44 in the same survey, 90% said they were heterosexual, 1.3% homosexual, 2.8% bisexual, and 3.8% as 'something else' (Mosher, Chandra, & Jones, 2005).
    • The incidence rate of homosexual desire for men is 7.7% and 7.5% for women (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
    • 6.2% of men and 4.4% of women are attracted to people of the same sex (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
    • 4% of men and 2% of women consider themselves homosexual while 5% of men and 3% of women consider themselves bisexual (Janus & Janus, 1993).
    • 88.2% of adolescent youths as a Minnesota junior/senior high school described himself or herself as heterosexual, while 1.1% described himself or herself as bisexual or homosexual, and 10.7% were not sure of their sexual orientation (Remafedi, 1992).

    Kinsey Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale


    • Infidelity has been found to be the single most cited cause of divorce in over 150 cultures. (Betzig, 1989)
    • In western countries, between 25 and 50% of divorcees cite a spouse’s infidelity as the primary cause of the divorce. (Kelly, 1987; Amato, 1997)
    • Approximately 20-25% of men and 10-15% of women engage in extramarital sex at least once during their marriage. (Laumann, 1994; Wiederman, 1997)
    • Pregnancy appears to be a time of increased risk of extramarital sex. (Allen, 2005; White, 1982)
    • Women are less approving than men of sexual justifications for extramarital affairs, preferring emotional reasons such as “falling in love”. (Glass, 1992).
    • Approximately 50% of divorced men and women reported that there former spouse had engaged in extra-marital sex. For divorced couples, previous participation in extramarital sex showed no effect on post-marital adjustment. (Spanier, 1982).
    • 11% of adults who have ever been married or cohabited have been unfaithful to their partner (Treas & Giesen, 2000).
    • Infidelity is influenced by many social and demographic factors. All of the following were associated with an increased risk of infidelity: having been part of a couple for a long time; having had a high number of prior sex partners; being male or black; living in a central city; and thinking about sex several times a day (Treas & Giesen, 2000).
    • Respondents who reported that their relationships were "pretty happy" and "not too happy" were two and four times more likely, respectively, to have reported extramarital sex than respondents who reported that they were "very happy" with their relationships (Atkins et al., 2001).
    • More than 80% of women and 65 to 85% of men report that they had no partners other than their spouse while they were married (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
    • 94% of married men and women had only one sex partner (their spouse) in the past 12 months, 4% had 2-4 partners, and 1% had over 5 partners (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).


    Internet Pornography

    • Overuse, pornography, infidelity, and risky behaviors are among the most frequently treated Internet-related problems by mental health professionals. (Mitchell, 2005).
    • Over half of all spending on the Internet is estimated to be related to sex. (Yoder, 2005).
    • US porn revenues have been estimated to exceed the combined revenues of companies like ABC, CBS, and NBC. (Yoder, 2005).
    • In a survey of adolescent (10-17yrs) internet users found 42% had been exposed to internet pornography in the past year, with 66% of those exposures reported as unwanted. (Wolak, 2007).
    • Only boys ages 16-17 reported more wanted exposures than unwanted exposures to internet pornography. (Wolak, 2007).
    • In a national study, 14% of people reported having used a sexually explicit website ever (Buzzell, 2005).
    • In the same study, 25% of men reported visiting a pornographic site in the previous 30 days; 4% of women reported visiting pornographic sites in the same timeframe. (Buzzell, 2005).
    • Only 8% of men and women using the Internet for sexual reasons reported significant problems typically associated with compulsive disorders (Cooper, Scherer, Boies, Gordon, 1999).
    • In a study of Internet addiction of 396 "addicts", as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, the average time spent on the Internet for nonacademic and nonprofessional purposes was 38 hours per week (Cooper, Scherer, Boies, Gordon, 1999).
    • Males have been found to make up two thirds of users of sexually explicit Internet sites and account for 77% of on-line time (Cooper, Scherer, Boies, Gordon, 1999).
    • 51% of women reported they never download sexual material (Cooper, Scherer, Boies, Gordon, 1999).


    Number of Partners



    • Women are much more likely to be nearly always or always orgasmic when alone than with a partner. However, among women currently in a partnered relationship, 62% say they are very satisfied with the frequency/consistency of orgasm (Davis, Blank, Hung-Yu, & Bonillas, 1996).
    • Many women express that their most satisfying sexual experiences entail being connected to someone, rather than solely basing satisfaction on orgasm (Bridges, Lease, & Ellison, 2004).
    • 75% of men and 29% of women always have orgasms with their partner (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
    • About 40% for both men and women said they were extremely pleased physically and extremely emotionally satisfied (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
    • 25% of men and 14% of women reported that simultaneous orgasm is a must (Janus & Janus, 1993).
    • 10% of men and 18% of women reported a preference for oral sex to achieve orgasm (Janus & Janus, 1993).
    • It is possible to experience both genital and non-genital orgasm, even for some individuals with spinal cord injuries. (Komisaruk, 2005).

    Penis Size

    • According to Gebhard and Johnson (1979), the average erect penis of males in the US is 5-7 inches and the average circumference is 4-6 inches. See Penis FAQ & Bibliography for more information.
    • More recent data (not yet published) indicates an average erect penis length is between 5 to 6 inches, and average flaccid penis length ranges between 1 and 4 inches.
    • A study of 300 men (unpublished) conducted by Kinsey Institute researcher Dr. Erick Janssen from 1989-1993 returned a mean penis circumference of 122 mm (approximately 4.8 inches). More details of the study are available here.
    • For a discussion of recent research, and facts and myths about penis size, see "Penis Myths Debunked" at www.livescience.org.
    • For a discussion of the facts and myths about penis enlargement, please visit the Male Sex Questions section of our Kinsey Confidential website.


    • Roughly six million U.S. women become pregnant per year. About two-thirds of these pregnancies result in live births and roughly 25% in abortions; the remainder end in miscarriage. (AGI, 2005).
    • The U.S. teen pregnancy rate fell by 27 percent between 1990 and 2000, from 116.3 pregnancies per 1,000 girls aged 15-19 to 84.5. This data includes live births, abortions, and fetal losses. Pregnancy data includes live births, induced abortions, and fetal losses (NCHS, 2004).
    • 6 in 10 teen pregnancies occur among 18-19 year-olds (AGI, 1999).
    • Almost 1 million teenage women, 10% of all women aged 15-19 and 19% of those who have had intercourse, become pregnant each year (AGI, 1999).
    • 80 million women have unwanted or unintended pregnancies every year (Glasier et al, 2006).

    Prostitution/Sex Work

    • 15.3% of men estimated to have had sex with a prostitute previously (Smith 2006)
    • Despite common conceptions of prostitution, only a minority of prostitutes work on the streets (10–30%). While street prostitution receives the majority of legal attention, far more prostitutes work as escorts, call girls, or in massage parlors and brothels. (Weitzer, 2005).
    • Average prostitution arrests are comprised of 70% female prostitutes, 20% percent male prostitutes and 10% customers (Alexander, 1987).
    • In 1983, 125,600 people were arrested for prostitution while in 1994, that number dropped to 98,190 people (Meier, Geis, 1997).
    • 69% of white males had at least one experience with a prostitute (Kinsey, Martin, Gebhard, 1948).


    Reproductive Health

    • Postpartum depression (PPD) strikes about 1 in 10 Western women. Studies of Western women have demonstrated that this emotional experience can occur during pregnancy and/or after delivery, and even in women who adopt an infant. (Goldbort, 2006).
    • Each year, 210 million women suffer life-threatening complications of pregnancy and half a million die from pregnancy-related causes (99% of them in developing countries) (Glasier et al, 2006).
    • Each year, 3 million babies die in the first week of life and about 3.3 million infants are stillborn. (Glasier et al, 2006).
    • Currently, more than 120 million couples a year have an unmet need for contraception (Glasier et al, 2006).
    • Each year, 257 000 women die from cervical cancer (Glasier et al, 2006).



    Sex and Relationships

    • Nearly all Americans marry during their lifetime, yet close to half of all first marriages are expected to end in separation or divorce, many within a few years (Bramlett, 2002) and subsequent marriages are even more likely to end (Karney, 1995).
    • Sexual dissatisfaction is associated with increased risk of divorce and relationship dissolution. (Karney, 1995).
    • Most newly married couples wish to have children at some point during their marriage (Matthews & Matthews, 1986), or already have them.
    • Approximately 15% of married couples, however, are estimated to experience problems trying to become pregnant and seek help, which not uncommonly involves recommendations regarding the timing and frequency of sexual interactions. (Haugen et al., 2004; Meyers, Diamond, Kezur, et al, 1995).
    • A study of married couples found age and marital satisfaction to be the two variables most associated with amount of sex. As couples age, they engage in sex less frequently with half of couples age 65-75 still engaging in sex, but less than one fourth of couples over 75 still sexually active. Across all ages couples who reported higher levels of marital satisfaction also reported higher frequencies of sex. (Call, 1995).


    Sex Practices

    There is wide variability in what people consider included in “having sex”. In a recent study at The Kinsey Institute, nearly 45% of participants considered performing manual-genital stimulation to be “having sex,” 71% considered performing oral sex to be “sex,” 80.8% for anal-genital intercourse. Considerations of “sex” also varied depending on whether or not a condom was used, female or male orgasm, and if the respondent was performing or receiving the stimulation.

    With participants ranging from 18 to 96 years, the oldest and youngest groups of men were less likely to consider some behaviors as “sex”.

    Sanders, Stephanie A., Hill, Brandon J., Yarber, William L., Graham, Cynthia A., Crosby, Richard A. and Milhausen, Robin R. (2010). Misclassification bias: diversity in conceptualizations about having 'had sex.' Sexual Health 7(1): 31–34. DOI:10.1071/SH09068.

    Sexual Violence

    • 272,350 sexual assaults in 2006 in the US: 1 sexual assault every 116 seconds, or about 1 every 2 minutes. (US Dept of Justice, National Crime Victimization Survey, 2006).
    • Less than 5% of rapes were reported to law enforcement officials. (Fisher, 2000).
    • Rape rates are often drastically high in worn-torn nations. In Rwanda in 1994, it is estimated that between 250,000 and 500,000 women and girls were raped in less than 100 days (Human Rights Watch, 1996).
    • Child sexual abuse is believed to affect 10-25% of girls worldwide (World Health Organization, 2004).
    • In studies conducted mostly in developed countries, 5–10% of men report being sexually abused as children (World Health Organization, 2004)
    • In one 7 month period, 16.6 college women out of 1000 experienced a completed rape and 11 college women out of 1000 experienced an attempted rape (Fisher, Cullen, Turner, 2000).
    • 2.8% of college women experience rape, either completed or attempted (Fisher, Cullen, Turner, 2000).
    • In 9 out of 10 of these cases, the rapist was someone the victim knew, such as a boyfriend, friend, or acquaintance (Fisher, Cullen, Turner, 2000).
    • 22.8% of college rape-victims are multiple-rape victims (Fisher, Cullen, Turner, 2000).
    • Less than 5% of rapes were reported to law enforcement officials (Fisher, Cullen, Turner, 2000).
    • In the general population in the US, 14.8% of women report an experience with a completed rape in their lifetime. Another 2.8% report an attempted rape in their lifetime (Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000).
    • An estimated 100 million to 400 million women worldwide have been subjected to Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). About 3 million girls are subjected to the procedure every year (World Health Organization, 2006).



    • Percent of men and women, aged 15-44 reporting any sexually-transmitted infection, other than HIV
      3.2% of ages 15-19 10.5% of ages 15-19
      7.1% of ages 20-24 13.4% of ages 20-24
      4.8% of ages 25-29 16.5% of ages 25-29
      9.3% of ages 30-34 18.6% of ages 30-34
      9.0% of ages 35-44 19.2% of ages 35-44
    • The Center for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 19 million new sexually-transmitted infections occur each year, almost half of them among young people ages 15 to 24 (Weinstock, Berman , Cates, 2004).
    • Chlamydia remains the most reported infections disease in the US; It is estimated that there are approximately 2.8 million new cases of chlamydia in the United States each year (Weinstock, Berman , Cates, 2004).
    • Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported infectious disease in the United States, with 330,132 cases reported in 2004 (Weinstock, Berman , Cates, 2004).
    • Like chlamydia, gonorrhea is substantially under diagnosed and under reported, and approximately twice as many new infections are estimated to occur each year as are reported (Weinstock, Berman , Cates, 2004).
    • The syphilis rate in the United States has been increasing over the past four years. Between 2003 and 2004 alone, the national primary and secondary syphilis rate increased 8 percent, driven largely by new infections among men (CDC, 2004).
    • By the age of 24, one in three sexually active people will have contracted an STI (KFF, 1998).
    • At least 65 million people, more than one in 5 Americans, are believed to be infected with a viral STI other than HIV (NCHSTP, 1998).


    Teen Sexual Activity

    • At the ages 15–17, about 13 percent of males and 11 percent of females had had heterosexual oral sex but not vaginal intercourse. (Mosher, Chandra, & Jones, 2005)
    • At ages 18–19, about 11 percent of males and 9 percent of females had had oral sex but not vaginal intercourse. (Mosher, Chandra, & Jones, 2005)
    • Among men aged 15-19 years, 45.1% reported no partners in the last 12 months, 29.7% reported one partner of the opposite sex in the last 12 months, and 21.8% reported two or more partners of the opposite sex in the previous year. (Mosher, Chandra, & Jones, 2005)
    • Among women aged 15-19 years, 42.9% reported no partners in the last 12 months, 30.5% reported one partner of the opposite sex in the last 12 months, and 16.8% reported two or more partners of the opposite sex in the previous year. (Mosher, Chandra, & Jones, 2005)
    • Among men aged 15-19, 2.4% reported having had same-sex sexual contact in the previous 12 months, and 4.5% reported having had same-sex contact in their lifetime. (Mosher, Chandra, & Jones, 2005)
    • Among women aged 15-19, 7.7% reported having had same-sex sexual contact in the previous 12 months. (Mosher, Chandra, & Jones, 2005)
    • Between 1990 and 1998, gonorrhea rates among adolescents aged 15-19 decreased by 50% (DHHS, 2000).
    • Approximately 25% of the 15 million new cases of sexually transmitted infections occur among teenagers (CDC, 2000a).


    Vagina Size

    The average vagina measures 62.7 mm with a relatively large range (40.8–95 mm) and the width of the vagina varies along its length. The position of the cervix, marking the end of the vagina, can also vary at different points in a woman’s cycle or pregnancy.

    Barnhart, K. T., Izquierdo, A., & Pretorious, E. (2006). Baseline dimensions of the human vagina. Human Reproduction, 21(6), 1618-1622. http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/21/6/1618

    FAQ Bibliography

    Alexander, Priscilla. Sex Work: Writings by Women in the Sex Industry. 1987. San Francisco: Cleis Press

    Allen, E. S., D. C. Atkins, et al. (2005). "Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and contextual factors in engaging in and responding to extramarital involvement " Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 12(2): 101-130.

    Amato, P. R. and S. J. Rogers (1997). "A longitudinal study of marital problems and subsequent divorce." Journal of Marriage & the Family 59(3): 612-624.

    Atkins, DC, Baucom, DH, & Jacobson, NS (2001). Understanding infidelity: Correlates in a national random sample. Journal of Family Psychology, 15(4), pp. 735-749.

    Betzig, L. (1989). "Causes of conjugal dissolution: A cross-cultural study." Current Anthropology 30(5): 654-676.

    Boyers, DB, Kegeles, SM. AIDS risk and prevention among adolescents. 1991. Soc Sci Med Vol. 33(1), pp. 11-23.

    Bramlett, M. D. and W. D. Mosher (2002). "Cohabitation, marriage, divorce, and remarriage in the United States." Vital & Health Statistics - Series 23, Data from the National Survey of Family Growth 22: 1-93.

    Bridges, S.K., Lease, S.H., Ellison, C.R. (2004). Predicting sexual satisfaction in women: Implications for counselor education and training. Journal of Counseling & Development, Vol. 82(2), 158-166).

    Buzzell, T (2005). Demographic characteristics of persons using pornography in three technological contexts. Sexuality & Culture, 9(1), pp. 28-48.

    Call, V., Sprecher, S., & Schwartz, P. (1995). The incidence and frequency of marital sex in a national sample. Journal of marriage and family, 57(3), 639-652. http://www.jstor.org/stable/353919

    Cates, Willard. "Estimates of the Incidence and Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the United States." 1999. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Volume 26(4).

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tracking the Hidden Epidemic: Trends in STDs in the United States. 2000a. www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/Stats_Trends/Trends2000.pdf

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Trends in Reportable Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the United States. 2004. www.cdc.gov/std/stats/trends2004.htm

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Basic Statistics: Cumulative AIDS Cases. 2000b. www.cdc.gov/hiv/stats/cumulati.htm

    Center for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV and AIDS in the United States. 2010. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/us.htm.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report: HIV Infection and AIDS in the United States, 2003. www.cdc.gov/hiv/stats.htm

    Connoly, P. (2006). Psychological functioning of bondage/domination/sado-masochism practitioners. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 18(1).

    Contraceptive Use. 2004. Alan Guttmacher Institute. New York: AGI. http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/fb_contr_use.html

    Cooper, A., Scherer, C., Boies, S., Gordon, B. Sexuality on the Internet: From Sexual Exploration to Pathological Expression. 1999. Vol. 30(2), pp. 154-164. www.apa.org/journals/features/pro302154.pdf

    Davis, C.M., Blank, J., Hung-Yu, L., & Bonillas, Consuelo (1996). Characteristics of vibrator use among women. Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 33(4), 313-320.

    Edwards, J. N. and A. Booth (1994). Sexuality, marriage, and well-being: The middle years. Sexuality across the life course. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation series on mental health and development: Studies on successful midlife development. A. S. E. Rossi. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press: 233-259.

    Ernulf, K. E., & Innala, S. M. (1995). Sexual bondage: a review and unobtrusive investagation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 24(6).

    Fisher, B., Cullen, F., Turner, M. (2000). The Sexual Victimization of College Women. U.S. Department of Justice Report. National Institute of Justice and Bureau of Justice Statistics. Washington, D.C. www.ncjrs.org/txtfiles1/nij/182369.txt

    Get "In the Know": 20 Questions About Pregnancy, Contraception and Abortion. (2005). Alan Guttmacher Institute. http://agi-usa.org/in-the-know/index.html.

    Glasier A, Gülmezoglu AM, Schmid GP, Garcia-Moreno C, Van Look PF. Sexual and reproductive health: a matter of life and death. The Lancet 2006; 368:1595-1607.

    Glass, Shirley P. and Wright, Thomas L.(1992) 'Justifications for extramarital relationships: The association between attitudes, behaviors, and gender', Journal of Sex Research, 29: 3, 361-387. http://pdfserve.informaworld.com/39775_731200576_918489260.pdf

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